I am Professor of Education, and joined MMU in 2009 from Lancaster University, where I was Reader in Educational Research. I research in the area of mathematics education.
I gained my PhD in Educational Research at Lancaster in 1986, leading to my first book, The Practice of Mathematics (1989). This was the beginning of a long-standing research career in mathematics education - my book Mathematical Literacy, published in 2008, brings together a number of themes in this research, including classroom interaction, the language of mathematics, and the development of learner identities from primary to undergraduate years.
My first degree was in psychology (I later took another degree in mathematics and statistics), and from 1991 to 1994 I was Research Psychologist and Senior Research Psychologist at the Trust for the Study of Adolescence in Brighton, where I worked on a number of projects involving young people. I followed this interest up with a major investigation of family relationships in Rochdale between 1996 and 2000 - Fathers, Work and Family Life and Family Understandings: closeness, authority and independence in families with teenagers, both published by the Family Policy Studies Centre.
I am still interested in families and how they influence young people's development as mathematics learners. I work largely within socio-cultural theory, drawing particularly on Dorothy Holland and Bakhtin.
I welcome students interested in researching in the areas of classroom interaction and the construction of knowledge; mathematics and identity; gender and mathematics learning; gender and STEM participation. Current and recently completed students are researching
I have a longstanding interest in student engagement with mathematics, and the multiple influences of family history, classroom experience, personal narrative and peer discourses in the construction of mathematical literacy and relationships with mathematics from secondary school through to undergraduate level. My work focuses on:
My current projects include Realistic Mathematics Education at Key Stage 3, funded by the Education Endowment Foundation, and Inclusive Mathematics Teaching: Understanding and Developing School and Classroom Strategies for Raising Attainment (IMaT), funded by the Norwegian Research Council.
T. Foyn, YJ. Solomon, HJ. Braathe (2018). Clever girls' stories: the girl they call a nerd. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 98(1), pp.77-93.
YJ. Solomon, E. Eriksen, B. Smestad, C. Rodal, A. Bjerke (2017). Prospective teachers navigating intersecting communities of practice: early school placement. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education. 20(2), pp.141-158.
D. Bennett, Y. Solomon, C. Bergin, M. Horgan, T. Dornan (2017). Possibility and agency in Figured Worlds: Becoming a ‘good doctor’. Medical Education.
YJ. Solomon, T. Croft, (2016). Understanding undergraduate disengagement from mathematics: addressing alienation. International Journal of Educational Research. 79, pp.267-276.
Y. Solomon, C. Lewin (2016). Measuring ‘progress’: performativity as both driver and constraint in school innovation. Journal of Education Policy. 31(2), pp.226-238.
Y. Solomon, D. Radovic, L. Black (2016). “I can actually be very feminine here”: contradiction and hybridity in becoming a female mathematician. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 91(1), pp.55-71.
E. Hill, YJ. Solomon, T. Dornan, R. Stalmeijer (2015). “You become a man in a man’s world”: is there discursive space for women in surgery?. Medical Education. 49(12), pp.1207-1218.
HJ. Braathe, Y. Solomon (2015). Choosing mathematics: the narrative of the self as a site of agency. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 89(2), pp.151-166.
Y. Solomon, T. Croft, F. Duah, D. Lawson (2014). Reshaping understandings of teaching-learning relationships in undergraduate mathematics: An activity theory analysis of the role and impact of student internships. Learning Culture and Social Interaction.
T. Brown, Y. Solomon, J. Williams (2016). Educational Studies in Mathematics 92, 3: Special Issue: Mathematics Education and Contemporary Theory Volume Two. A. Brown. Springer.
Y. Solomon (2013). Reframing Educational Research: Resisting the 'what Works' Agenda. Y. Solomon, V. Farnsworth. Routledge.
Y. Solomon (2013). The Practice of Mathematics. Routledge.
L. Black, H. Mendick, Y. Solomon (2009). Mathematical Relationships in Education. Routledge.
Y. Solomon (2009). Mathematical Literacy. Taylor & Francis.
M. Chionidou-Moskofoglou, Y. Solomon, R. Tanzberger, A. Blunck, R. Siemens (2008). Promoting Equity in Maths Achievement. The Current discussion. Edicions Universitat Barcelona.
AH. Bjerke, Y. Solomon (2019). Developing Self-Efficacy in Teaching Mathematics: Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of the Role of Subject Knowledge. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. pp.1-14.
T. Foyn, YJ. Solomon, HJ. Braathe (2018). Clever girls' stories: the girl they call a nerd. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 98(1), pp.77-93.
YJ. Solomon, E. Eriksen, B. Smestad, C. Rodal, A. Bjerke (2017). Prospective teachers navigating intersecting communities of practice: early school placement. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education. 20(2), pp.141-158.
D. Bennett, Y. Solomon, C. Bergin, M. Horgan, T. Dornan (2017). Possibility and agency in Figured Worlds: Becoming a ‘good doctor’. Medical Education.
YJ. Solomon, T. Croft, (2016). Understanding undergraduate disengagement from mathematics: addressing alienation. International Journal of Educational Research. 79, pp.267-276.
T. Brown, Y. Solomon, J. Williams (2016). Theory in and for mathematics education: in pursuit of a critical agenda. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 92(3), pp.287-297.
Y. Solomon, C. Lewin (2016). Measuring ‘progress’: performativity as both driver and constraint in school innovation. Journal of Education Policy. 31(2), pp.226-238.
J. Hodgen, A. Simpson, Y. Solomon (2016). Editorial. Research in Mathematics Education. 18(1), pp.1-2.
Y. Solomon, D. Radovic, L. Black (2016). “I can actually be very feminine here”: contradiction and hybridity in becoming a female mathematician. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 91(1), pp.55-71.
E. Hill, YJ. Solomon, T. Dornan, R. Stalmeijer (2015). “You become a man in a man’s world”: is there discursive space for women in surgery?. Medical Education. 49(12), pp.1207-1218.
HJ. Braathe, Y. Solomon (2015). Choosing mathematics: the narrative of the self as a site of agency. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 89(2), pp.151-166.
T. Rowland, J. Hodgen, Y. Solomon (2015). Mathematics teaching: tales of the unexpected. Research in Mathematics Education. 17(2), pp.71-73.
K. With, Y. Solomon (2014). Choosing Mathematics in Norway and England: Discourses of Gender, Equity and Choice. Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal. 27(October 2014),
Y. Solomon, T. Croft, F. Duah, D. Lawson (2014). Reshaping understandings of teaching-learning relationships in undergraduate mathematics: An activity theory analysis of the role and impact of student internships. Learning Culture and Social Interaction.
E. Hill, K. Bowman, YJ. Solomon, R. Stalmeijer, T. Dornan (2014). Can I cut it? Medical students' perceptions of surgeons and surgical careers. The American Journal of Surgery. 208(5), pp.860-867.
Y. Barnes, Y. Solomon (2013). The Discipline of Noticing as a Path to Understanding. International Review of Qualitative Research. 6(3), pp.360-375.
K. Senior, Y. Solomon (2013). Orbiting Data. Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies. 13(4), pp.279-288.
T. Brown, D. Heywood, Y. Solomon, A. Zagorianakos (2013). Experiencing the space we share: rethinking subjectivity and objectivity. ZDM. 45(4), pp.561-572.
C. Lewin, Y. Solomon (2013). Silencing the school bell? Reflecting on One School’s Transformational Journey. International Review of Qualitative Research. 6(3), pp.376-394.
JH. Goodband, Y. Solomon, PC. Samuels, D. Lawson, R. Bhakta (2012). Limits and potentials of social networking in academia: case study of the evolution of a mathematics Facebook community. Learning, Media and Technology. 37(3), pp.236-252.
Y. Solomon (2012). Finding a voice? Narrating the female self in mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 80(1-2), pp.171-183.
D. Heywood, Y. Solomon (2012). Policy, theory and practice in cross-curricularity: What ‘problems’ does a cross-curricular approach aim to solve?. International Journal of Educational Research. 55, pp.1-5.
C. Carvalho, Y. Solomon (2012). Supporting statistical literacy: What do culturally relevant/realistic tasks show us about the nature of pupil engagement with statistics?. International Journal of Educational Research. 55, pp.57-65.
Y. Solomon, D. Lawson, T. Croft (2011). Dealing with ‘fragile identities’: resistance and refiguring in women mathematics students. Gender and Education. 23(5), pp.565-583.
L. Black, H. Mendick, Y. Solomon (2011). Mathematical relationships in education: Identities and participation. Mathematical Relationships in Education: Identities and Participation. pp.1-251.
Y. Solomon, T. Croft, D. Lawson (2010). Safety in numbers: mathematics support centres and their derivatives as social learning spaces. Studies in Higher Education. 35(4), pp.421-431.
J. Warin, Y. Solomon, C. Lewis (2007). Swapping Stories: Comparing Plots: Triangulating Individual Narratives within Families. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 10(2), pp.121-134.
Y. Solomon (2007). Not belonging? What makes a functional learner identity in undergraduate mathematics?. Studies in Higher Education. 32(1), pp.79-96.
Y. Solomon (2007). Experiencing mathematics classes: Ability grouping, gender and the selective development of participative identities. International Journal of Educational Research. 46(1-2), pp.8-19.
Y. Solomon (2006). Deficit or Difference? the Role of Students' Epistemologies of Mathematics in their Interactions with Proof. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 61(3), pp.373-393.
Y. Solomon, J. Warin, C. Lewis, W. Langford (2002). Intimate talk between parents and their teenage children: Democratic openness or covert control?. SOCIOLOGY-THE JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 36(4), pp.965-983.
Y. Solomon, J. Warin, C. Lewis (2002). Helping with homework? Homework as a site of tension for parents and teenagers. BRITISH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL. 28(4), pp.603-622.
Y. Solomon, C. Rogers (2001). Motivational patterns in disaffected school students: Insights from pupil referral unit clients. British Educational Research Journal. 27(3), pp.330-345.
Y. Solomon (1998). Teaching Mathematics: Ritual, Principle and Practice. Journal of Philosophy of Education. 32(3), pp.377-390.
Y. Solomon, J. O'Neill (1998). Mathematics and Narrative. Language and Education. 12(3), pp.210-221.
Y. Solomon, J. Farrand (1996). ''Why don't you do it properly?'' Young women who self-injure. JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE. 19(2), pp.111-119.
P. Dickinson, F. Eade, S. Hough, S. Gough, YJ. Solomon (2019). Implementing RME in England and the Cayman Islands – dealing with clashing educational ideologies. W. Blum, M. Artigue, M. Mariotti, R. Sträßer, M. Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen. In: Reflections from abroad on the Netherlands Didactic Tradition in Mathematics Education. Springer,
YJ. Solomon From feedback to identity as a mathematics learner: a never-ending story. In: School Feedback, Identity and Trajectories: Dynamics and Consequences. Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology,
Y. Barnes, Y. Solomon (2014). Empowering Teachers as Learners: Continuing Professional Learning Programmes as Sites for Critical Development in Pedagogical Practice. JMAMJ. Olwen McNamara. In: Workplace Learning in Teacher Education. Springer Netherlands, pp.137-150.
YJ. Solomon, Y. Barnes, F. Cockerham, U. Hanley (2013). 'How do mathematics teaching enhancement programmes 'work'?. V. Farnsworth, Y. Solomon. In: Reframing Educational Research: Resisting the 'what Works' Agenda. Routledge,
L. Black, H. Mendick, M. Rodd, Y. Solomon, M. Brown (2011). Mathematical Relationships in Education. L. Black, H. Mendick, Y. Solomon. In: Mathematical Relationships in Education: Identities and Participation. Routledge, pp.19-30.
Y. Solomon, L. Black (2008). Talking to Learn and Learning to Talk in the Mathematics Classroom. N. Mercer, S. Hodgkinson. In: Exploring Talk in School: Inspired by the Work of Douglas Barnes. SAGE Publications Ltd, pp.73-90.
Y. Solomon (2007). Developing gendered identities of inclusion and exclusion in mathematics. In: Promoting Equity in Maths Achievement: The Current Discussion.
YJ. Solomon (2006). Schooling and literacy. In: Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Child Development. Cambridge University Press,
S. Hough, S. Gough, Y. Solomon Connecting the everyday with the formal: the role of bar models in developing low attainers’ mathematical understanding. In: After the conference. Utrecht, The Netherlands, 6/2/2019.
E. Eriksen, B. Smestad, A. Bjerke, C. Rodal, YJ. Solomon From emergency sirens to birdsong - narratives of becoming a mathematics teacher. In: http://www.mathematik.uni-dortmund.de/~erme/index.php?slab=proceedings. Dublin, Ireland, 1/2/2017.
YJ. Solomon, S. Hough, P. Dickinson, S. Gough GCSE resit: What’s in a C?. Leeds, 13/9/2016.
YJ. Solomon Making space for women in mathematics: one woman’s story. Hamburg, 24/7/2016.
YJ. Solomon Power and parody: class, gender and the family in the measurement of mathematics ability. Hamburg, 24/7/2016.
YJ. Solomon, S. Hough, P. Dickinson, S. Gough, F. Eade Counteracting failure – using a Realistic Mathematics Education approach with examination retake students. Hamburg, 24/7/2016.
S. Hough, YJ. Solomon, P. Dickinson, S. Gough 'Maths isn't supposed to make sense' - working with GCSE resit students to change attitudes and achievement through a Realistic Mathematics Education-based intervention. Belfast, 7/9/2015.
YJ. Solomon, S. Hough, P. Dickinson, S. Gough ‘Joel’s getting left behind’: dilemmas for students and teachers in GCSE resit classes. Dublin, 8/2/2015.
K. With, YJ. Solomon Choosing mathematics in Norway and England: discourses of gender, equity and choice. Turku, Finland, 3/6/2014.
E. Eriksen, B. Smestad, C. Rodal, Y. Solomon, A. Bjerke Becoming Educationally Wise”: Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers And The Value Of Peer Learning. Turku, Finland, 1/6/2014.
A. Bjerke, E. Eriksen, C. Rodal, B. Smestad, Y. Solomon ‘A tripartite cooperation? Exploring school-university collaboration in mathematics teacher education in Norway’. Istanbul, 1/9/2013.
C. Lewin, Y. Solomon ‘Rethinking Education’: The Impact of Curriculum Innovation on Teachers’ Roles. Istanbul, 1/9/2013.
A. Bjerke, E. Eriksen, C. Rodal, B. Smestad, Y. Solomon (2013). ‘A tripartite cooperation? The challenges of school-university collaboration in mathematics teacher education in Norway’. In: Proceedings of the 37th conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Kiel, 1/7/2013. pp.89-96.
Y. Solomon ‘Students as agents of change: collaboration in undergraduate teaching and learning’. Cambridge University, 1/11/2012.
Y. Solomon, D. Heywood, T. Brown ‘Relationships in space’ British Educational Research Association. Manchester, 1/9/2012.
HJ. Braathe, Y. Solomon Hearing voices: identity, agency and intention in choosing mathematics. Illinois, 2012.
Y. Solomon ‘What do students take from mathematics enhancement programmes? Re-asserting agency in regulative times’. British Educational Research Association. Institute of Education, London, 1/9/2011.
Y. Solomon ‘Restricted access? Discursive positioning in mathematics classroom cultures’. The International Society for Cultural and Activity Research, Rome, 1/9/2011.
A. Bjerke, E. Eriksen, C. Rodal, B. Smestad, Y. Solomon (2014). ‘Theorizing mathematics teaching: pre-service teachers’ perceptions before and during school placement’. In: FoU i Praksis 2012 proceedings. Trondheim, 1/4/2011. pp.20-27.
Y. Solomon ‘What do primary teachers take from mathematics enhancement programmes? Developing and maintaining agency in times of change’. 1/3/2011.
Y. Solomon ‘Finding a language of resistance? Narrating the female self in mathematics’. Warwick University, 1/9/2010.
Y. Solomon, A. Chronaki, S. Lerman, H. Mendick ‘Whose choice? Self-positioning in the interface between discourses of value/ability in mathematics and family narratives’. Berlin, 1/3/2010.
Y. Solomon ‘Students learning from each other - the impact of spaces for learning’. University of Warwick, 2010.
P. Samuel, Y. Solomon, D. Lawson, J. Goodband, R. Bhakta From anarchy to establishment: A case study in the evolution of a mathematics social networking community. Coventry University, 1/9/2009.
Y. Solomon, A. Croft, D. Lawson ‘Dealing with “fragile identities”: resistance and refiguring in women mathematics students’. Manchester University, 1/9/2009.
Y. Solomon, D. Lawson, A. Croft ‘Safety in numbers: mathematics support centres and their derivatives as social learning spaces’. Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 1/9/2008.
Y. Solomon, A. Croft, D. Lawson Mathematics support centres as social learning spaces. Lancaster University, Lancaster, 1/9/2008.
YJ. Solomon Theorising fragile identities: what can we learn from mathematics students?. University of Manchester, 1/1/2007.
Y. Solomon, L. Black The psychoanalytic take: Defence mechanisms operating in mathematics assessment and selection,. London Metropolitan University, 1/9/2006.
Y. Solomon Ways of knowing or ways of teaching? How feminist epistemologies potentially compound girls' exclusion from mathematics. Pontypridd, Wales, 1/9/2005.
YJ. Solomon ‘Not belonging: what makes a functional learner identity in the undergraduate mathematics community of practice?’. University of Manchester, 1/9/2005.
C. Rogers, Y. Solomon ‘Pressure and independence: meeting the needs of independence and the desire for an extrinsically motivating learning environment in high-stakes senior school education’. Montreal, Canada, 1/4/2005.
Y. Solomon 'Maths histories': emerging mathematics identities in the classroom community of practice. Manchester, 1/9/2004.
YJ. Solomon 'Not belonging: the role of learner identities in mathematical literacy'. Herriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 1/9/2003.
Y. Solomon Deficit or difference? Transition into university mathematics as a case study of epistemic fluency in Higher Education. Exeter, 1/9/2002.
Y. Solomon, J. Warin, C. Lewis, W. Langford Swapping stories, comparing plots: interpretative validity in family interviews. Leeds, 1/9/2001.
J. Warin, Y. Solomon Homework: help! Homework as a site of tensions between parents and teenagers. Cardiff, Wales, 1/9/2000.
C. Rogers, Y. Solomon Disaffection, motivation and the socio-emotional climate of mainstream schooling. New Orleans, USA, 1/4/2000.
P. Hick, Y. Solomon, J. Mintz, A. Matziari, F. Ó Murchú, et al. K. Hall, K. Cahill, C. Curtin, D. Margariti. (2018). Initial Teacher Education for Inclusion Phase 1 and 2 Report: NCSE Research Report No. 26. Trim, Co. Meath, Ireland: NCSE, Ireland, National Council for Special Education, Ireland (NCSE).
S. Hough, YJ. Solomon, P. Dickinson, S. Gough (2017). Investigating the impact of a Realistic Mathematics Education approach on achievement and attitudes in Post-16 GCSE resit classes. Manchester Metropolitan University, Nuffield Foundation.
W. Langford, J. Warin, YJ. Solomon, C. Lewis (2001). Family Understandings. Family Policy Studies Centre, Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
J. Warin, C. Lewis, YJ. Solomon, W. Langford (1999). Fathers, Work and Family Life. Family Policy Studies Centre, Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Solomon, Y (2016) Making space for women in mathematics: one woman’s story. Presentation to the International Organization of Women and Mathematics Education, 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education, Hamburg, 24-31 July 2016
Solomon, Y. (2016) Power and parody: class, gender and the family in the measurement of mathematics ability, 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education, Hamburg, 24-31 July 2016
Solomon, Y. (2016) Storying the self in forbidden spaces: women and mathematics, British Educational Research Association Research Commission on STEAM education, Cambridge University, April
Solomon, Y. (2016) Counteracting failure? Working with GCSE mathematics resit students to change attitudes and achievement using a Realistic Mathematics Education approach. Presentation to the joint meeting of SRHE and the BERA post-16 SIG, London, March
Solomon, Y. (2015) Storying the self in forbidden spaces: Using Holland and Bakhtin to explore identity and agency, Keynote for Summer Institute in Qualitative Research, Manchester, July
Solomon, Y. (2015) From feedback to identity as a mathematics learner: the impact of school systems and discourses University of Lisbon, Portugal, May
Solomon, Y. (2014) ‘What REALLY works? Bringing teaching and research together in mathematics’ Keynote talk for the Inspiring Mathematics CPD Conference, MMU, July
Solomon, Y. (2013) ‘Students as agents of change: collaboration in undergraduate teaching and learning’ Loughborough University, May
Solomon, Y, (2013) ‘Narrating the female self’ Stockholm University, January
Senior, K. & Solomon, Y. (2013) ‘Orbiting data: inciting centrifugal questions about embodied pedagogy in science.’ Stockholm University, January
Solomon, Y. (2012) ‘Defining ourselves as mathematics learners: gender, identity and school trajectories’ Sheffield Hallam University, December
Solomon, Y. (2012) ‘Defining ourselves as learners: identity and school trajectories’ University of Lisbon, Portugal, September
Solomon, Y. (2011) ‘What do primary teachers take from mathematics enhancement programmes? Developing and maintaining agency in times of change’, invited presentation to the ESRC seminar series Workplace Learning in Teacher Education, March
Solomon, Y. (2011) ‘Finding a language of resistance? Narrating the female self in mathematics’, University of Bedfordshire, March
Solomon, Y. (2010) ‘Researching the development of learner identities - the case of mathematics', University of Coventry, November
Solomon, Y. (2010) ‘Students learning from each other - the impact of spaces for learning’, invited address, Mathematics, Statistics and OR Network conference, Mathematicians and Mathematics Educators: what can we learn from each other? University of Warwick
Solomon, Y. (2009) ‘Talking about doing maths’, Institute of Education, London, May
Solomon, Y. (2009) ‘Building relationships with/in mathematics: exploring the development of learning communities’, University of Manchester, April
Solomon, Y. (2009) ‘Building relationships with/in mathematics: exploring the development of learning communities’, Kings College London, February
Solomon, Y. (2008) ‘How has research on talk contributed to mathematics education?’, presentation to the working conference Exploring Talk, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, October
Solomon, Y. (2008) ‘Building relationships with/in mathematics: exploring undergraduate learning communities’, keynote address, Higher Education Mathematics Education Conference, Loughborough University, September
Solomon, Y. (2007) ‘Developing gendered identities of exclusion and inclusion in mathematics’, paper presented at PREMA workshop Gender-Sensitivity and Pluralism in Mathematics Education, Barcelona, January
Solomon, Y. (2003) 'Inclusion issues in mathematical literacy', Literacy Research Group, Department of Linguistics, Lancaster University
Solomon, Y. (2002) ‘Homework help: what schools can learn from parents’ Department of Education, University of Wales at Aberystwyth, May
Solomon, Y. (2002) ‘Mathematical Literacy :The role of epistemic fluency in crossing the boundaries between learning cultures’ Institute for Mathematical Education, University of Bielefeld, Germany, May
I co-organised the Mathematics Education and Contemporary Theory conferences held at Manchester Metropolitan University in July 2011, June 2013 and July 2016.
Recent and current grants include:
Current projects
Project Director: Yvette Solomon
Funder: Norwegian Research Council
Duration: January 2019 - December 2022
Project Directors: Yvette Solomon, Sue Hough, Steve Gough
Funder: Education Endowment Foundation
Duration: January 2018 - December 2021
Recently completed projects
Project Directors: Peter Hick, Yvette Solomon
Funder: National Council for Special Education, Ireland
Duration: August 2015 - May 2018
Project Directors: Sue Hough, Yvette Solomon
Funder: Nuffield
Duration: December 2014 - November 2017
I am Professor in Mathematics Education in the Faculty of Education and International Studies, OsloMet Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway
I was editor of Research in Mathematics Education, published by Taylor and Francis, from January 2013 to October 2017