My international reputation arises from my work Professor of Environmental Science, Director of the Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment (CATE), Director of the Dalton Research Institute and Chief Scientific Advisor to Omega. I have secured in excess of £12m in funding for aviation related research from various funding sources. In 2006 I was awarded £5,000,00 from HEFCE to establish a consortium of Universities to address the impact of the air transport industry on the environment (Omega). As a result of my network of contacts and position within my academic field I was able to forge a partnership with UK Apex Universities including Oxford, Cambridge, Leeds and Sheffield and from the US MIT and Georgia Institute of Technology. Industry representatives including Rolls Royce, Airbus, British Airways and BAA. This four-year project had significant international and national profile and its outcomes have, and continue to inform, national and international policy. I was a lead author on an assessment report of United Nations and World Metrological Organisation ‘Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change- IPCC’ which considered the aviation impacts on the global environment. This report is recognised by the industry and legislators worldwide to be a seminal research output that will have a defining role on the shape of the industry during the 21st Century. The IPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 and as a lead author I contributed to the award. In recognition of my work with the aviation industry and knowledge of urban air quality, I was elected a member of the US National Academy of Sciences Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation and Air Quality (A1F03). I worked in close collaboration with the US FAA funded Centre of Excellence PARTNER co-ordinated by MIT. In 2005 I was appointed by the Department of Transport to chair a group of international and national academics and industry experts to develop a methodology to assess the air quality impacts of Heathrow Airport to support the policy decision on the construction of a third runway.
BA (Hons.) Geography, (1985), Newcastle Upon Tyne Polytechnic.
PhD Water Quality in the High Peak District of Derbyshire (1989), Manchester Polytechnic.
2012 - 2016 Director of Research and Knowledge Exchange and Professor of Environmental Science.
2010-2012 Associate Dean and Head of School Research, Enterprise and Innovation, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University.
2004 – Professor of Environmental Science.
2002- 2012 Director of the Dalton Research Institute, Manchester Metropolitan University.
2000 – 2012 Director of Centre of Air Transport and Environment.
1999 – 2004 Reader of Environmental Science, Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences Manchester Metropolitan University.
1996-1999 Principal Lecturer, Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences Manchester Metropolitan University.
1990-1996 Research Fellow, ARIC, Department Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University. Seconded to Manchester Airport to develop its Environment Department.
1989-1990 Researcher, Department of Environmental and Geographical Studies, Manchester Polytechnic.
1986-1989 Research Assistant, Department of Environmental and Geographical Studies, Manchester Polytechnic.
Supervised 15 PhDs to completion
University of Leeds
BY. Kim, N. Kazuni, R. Wayson, S. Christie, C. Paling, et al. (2015). Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports.
P. Lobo, PD. Whitefield, DE. Hagen, LJ. Rye, S. Blakey, et al. (2011). SAE E31 Methodology Development and Associated PM Emissions Characteristics of Aircraft APUs burning Conventional and Alternative Aviation Fuels. The Partnership for AIR Transortation Noise and Emissions Reduction.
SM. Christie, P. Lobo, D. Lee, D. Raper (2016). Gas Turbine Engine Nonvolatile Particulate Matter Mass Emissions: Correlation with Smoke Number for Conventional and Alternative Fuel Blends. Environmental Science and Technology.
P. Lobo, J. Condevaux, Z. Yu, J. Kuhlmann, DE. Hagen, et al. (2016). Demonstration of a Regulatory Method for Aircraft Engine Nonvolatile PM Emissions Measurements with Conventional and Isoparaffinic Kerosene fuels. Energy and Fuels. 30(9), pp.7770-7777.
P. Lobo, S. Christie, B. Khandelwal, SG. Blakey, DW. Raper (2015). Evaluation of Non-volatile Particulate Matter Emission Characteristics of an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit with Varying Alternative Jet Fuel Blend Ratios. Energy & Fuels. 29(11), pp.7705-7711.
P. Lobo, DE. Hagen, PD. Whitefield, D. Raper (2015). PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study. Atmospheric Environment. 104, pp.237-245.
L. Rye, P. Lobo, PI. Williams, I. Uryga-Bugajska, S. Christie, et al. (2012). Inadequacy of Optical Smoke Measurements for Characterization of Non–Light Absorbing Particulate Matter Emissions from Gas Turbine Engines. Combustion Science and Technology. 184(12), pp.2068-2083.
P. Lobo, L. Rye, PI. Williams, S. Christie, I. Uryga-Bugajska, et al. (2012). Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions. Environ Sci Technol. 46(19), pp.10805-10811.
PI. Williams, JD. Allan, P. Lobo, H. Coe, S. Christie, et al. (2012). Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions. Environ Sci Technol. 46(19), pp.10812-10819.
S. Christie, D. Raper, DS. Lee, PI. Williams, L. Rye, et al. (2012). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine. Environ Sci Technol. 46(11), pp.6393-6400.
D. Lee, D. Raper (2012). The global atmospheric impacts of aviation. pp.77-96.
A. Petzold, R. Marsh, M. Johnson, M. Miller, Y. Sevcenco, et al. (2011). Evaluation of methods for measuring particulate matter emissions from gas turbines. Environ Sci Technol. 45(8), pp.3562-3568.
M. Bennett, S. Christie, A. Graham, D. Raper (2010). Lidar Observations of Aircraft Exhaust Plumes. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 27(10), pp.1638-1651.
S. Matthes, G. Erhardt, K. Gierens, A. Petzold, P. Brok, et al. (2010). ECATS - Mission of Association for an environmentally compatible air transport system. DLR Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. - Forschungsberichte. pp.140-145.
A. GRAHAM, D. RAPER (2006). Transport to ground of emissions in aircraft wakes. Part I: Processes. Atmospheric Environment. 40(29), pp.5574-5585.
A. Graham, DW. Raper (2006). Transport to ground of emissions in aircraft wakes. Part II: Effect on NOx concentrations in airport approaches. Atmospheric Environment. 40(30), pp.5824-5836.
H. Peace, J. Maughan, B. Owen, D. Raper (2006). Identifying the contribution of different airport related sources to local urban air quality. Environmental Modelling and Software. 21(4), pp.532-538.
H. Peace, B. Owen, DW. Raper (2004). Comparison of road traffic emission factors and testing by comparison of modelled and measured ambient air quality data. Sci Total Environ. 334-335, pp.385-395.
H. Peace, B. Owen, DW. Raper (2004). Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources. Sci Total Environ. 334-335, pp.347-357.
P. Upham, D. Raper, C. Thomas, M. McLellan, M. Lever, et al. (2004). Environmental capacity and European air transport: stakeholder opinion and implications for modelling. Journal of Air Transport Management. 10(3), pp.199-205.
P. Upham, C. Thomas, D. Gillingwater, D. Raper (2003). Environmental capacity and airport operations: current issues and future prospects. Journal of Air Transport Management. 9(3), pp.145-151.
LFDL. Fuente, DM. Causon, DM. Ingram, CG. Mingham, DW. Raper (2003). Towards simulating urban canyon circulations with a 2D lattice Boltzmann model. Environmental Modelling and Software. 18(1), pp.71-79.
C. Thomas, D. Raper, P. Upham, D. Gillingwater, Y. Yang, et al. (2001). A strategic decision support tool for indicating airport sustainability. Environmental Modelling & Software. 16(3), pp.297-298.
. Driejana, . Lee, . Kingdon, . Raper, . Gee (2001). Modelling acidic deposition in the United Kingdom at a scale of 5 KM by 5 KM. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 130(1/4), pp.319-324.
. Driejana, . Raper, . Lee, . Kingdon, . Gee (2001). Wet deposition to an upland area of England in 1988 and 1999: Measurements and modelling. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 130(1/4), pp.1625-1630.
C. Thomas, D. Raper (2000). The role of aero engineering in the sustainable development of the aviation industry. AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL. 104(1037), pp.331-333.
B. Owen, HA. Edmunds, DJ. Carruthers, DW. Raper (1999). Use of a new generation urban scale dispersion model to estimate the concentration of oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide in a large urban area. Science of The Total Environment. 235(1-3), pp.277-291.
IL. Gee, DW. Raper (1999). Commuter exposure to respirable particles inside buses and by bicycle. Sci Total Environ. 235(1-3), pp.403-405.
SJ. Lindley, DE. Conlan, DW. Raper, AF. Watson (1999). Estimation of spatially resolved road transport emissions for air quality management applications in the north west region of England. Sci Total Environ. 235(1-3), pp.119-132.
D. RAYFIELD, JWS. LONGHURST, AFR. WATSON, T. HEWISON, DW. RAPER, et al. (1998). A methodology for estimation of vehicle emissions in an urban environment: An example from Greater Manchester. The Environmentalist. 18(3), pp.175-182.
JM. Buchdahl, D. Raper (1998). Environmental ethics and sustainable development. Sustainable Development. 6(2), pp.92-98.
J. Longhurst, DC. Gibbs, DW. Raper, DE. Conlan (1996). Towards sustainable airport development. The Environmentalist. 16(3), pp.197-202.
JWS. Longhurst, DW. Raper, DE. Conlan (1996). Local and regional air quality impacts of airport operations. The Environmentalist. 16(2), pp.83-90.
DW. Raper, DS. Lee (1996). Wet deposition at the sub-20 km scale in a rural upland area of England. Atmospheric Environment. 30(8), pp.1193-1207.
P. Upham, J. Maughan, D. Raper, C. Thomas (2012). Towards sustainable aviation. P. Upham, J. Maughan, D. Raper, C. Thomas. In: Towards Sustainable Aviation. Routledge, pp.1-250.
M. Bennett, D. Raper (2010). Impact of Airports on Local Air Quality. In: Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,
SM. Christie, P. Lobo, DW. Raper The impact of HEFA fuel blend ratio on gaseous emissions, smoke number and nvPM emissions. In: https://easn.net/documents/1/. Porto, Portugal, 18/10/2016.
SM. Christie, P. Lobo, D. Raper The impact of HEFA fuel blend ratio on gaseous emissions and smoke number in a small gas turbine. In: http://www.itakamadrid2016.eu/workshop.html. Madid, Spain, 12/9/2016.
P. Lobo,, SM. Christie, B. Kandelwal,, S. Blakey,, D. Hagen,, et al. Impact of alternative fuel blend ratios on the Non-volatile PM Emissions of an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit. Milan, Italy., 6/9/2015.
SM. Christie, S. Blakey,, P. Le Clercq,, S. Matthes,, H. Schlager,, et al. Research strategies for developing alternative fuels in aviation. Bad Kohlgrub, Germany., 22/6/2015.
SM. Christie, D. Raper, DS. Lee The atmospheric impacts of alternative fuels in aviation. Prague, 31/10/2012.
SM. Christie, D. Raper Atmospheric impact of alternative fuels in aviation. Valencia, Spain., 22/11/2011.
A. Petzold, A. Ibrahim, T. Dobovicnik, G. Mocnik, R. Hitzenberger, et al. Closure study on optical microphysical and chemical properties of combustion aerosols from a gas turbine combustor and from a diffusion flame. Vienna, 26/6/2011.
LF. de la Fuente, DM. Causon, DM. Ingram, CG. Mingham, DW. Raper (2002). Simulations of roof pitch and symmetry effects on urban canyon circulations using a 2D lattice boltzmann model. In: AIR POLLUTION MODELLING AND SIMULATION, PROCEEDINGS. CHAMPS SUR MARNE, FRANCE, 9/4/2001. pp.361-371.
P. Upham, Y. Yang, D. Gillingwater, C. Hinde, D. Raper, et al. (2001). A strategic decision support tool for indicating environmental and operational factors in Airport Development Scenarios. In: Proceedings of the Association for European Transport.
. Driejana, DW. Raper, DS. Lee, RD. Kingdon, IL. Gee (2001). Wet deposition to an upland area of England in 1988 and 1999: Measurements and modelling. In: WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION. TSUKUBA, JAPAN, 10/12/2000. pp.1625-1630.
. Driejana, DS. Lee, RD. Kingdon, DW. Raper, IL. Gee (2001). Modelling acidic deposition in the United Kingdom at a scale of 5 km by 5 km. In: WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION. TSUKUBA, JAPAN, 10/12/2000. pp.319-324.
D. Driejana, DW. Raper, IL. Gee, AFR. Watson (2000). Spatial and temporal variations of the chemical composition in acid deposition in the Peak District, Northern England. In: AIR POLLUTION VIII. UNIV CAMBRIDGE, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND, 24/7/2000. pp.655-665.
SJ. Lindley, DE. Conlan, DW. Raper, AFR. Watson (2000). Uncertainties in the compilation of spatially resolved emission inventories — evidence from a comparative study. In: Atmospheric Environment. BEIJING, PEOPLES R CHINA, 3/11/1998. pp.375-388.
DE. Conlan, DW. Raper, B. Owen (1997). Air Quality Management - a challenge for large international airports?. In: AIR POLLUTION V. BOLOGNA, ITALY, 16/9/1997. pp.79-88.
DE. Conlan, A. Crumbley, DW. Raper, B. Owen (1997). The role of local authorities in developing Air Quality Management in the UK. In: AIR POLLUTION V. BOLOGNA, ITALY, 16/9/1997. pp.69-78.
B. Owen, DW. Raper, JWS. Longhurst, DE. Conlan (1996). Air quality management at European airports. In: AIR POLLUTION IV. TOULOUSE, FRANCE, 28/8/1996. pp.609-616.
DE. Conlan, DW. Raper, JWS. Longhurst (1996). Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in the suburban region in and around an international airport. In: AIR POLLUTION IV. TOULOUSE, FRANCE, 28/8/1996. pp.617-626.
DW. Raper, DS. Lee, JWS. Longhurst (1996). Spatial variability of wet deposition in a rural upland area of England. In: AIR POLLUTION IV. TOULOUSE, FRANCE, 28/8/1996. pp.385-394.
D. Rayfield, JWS. Longhurst, DE. Conlan, AFR. Watson, DW. Raper (1996). Spatially resolved estimates of future emissions from road transport. In: AIR POLLUTION IV. TOULOUSE, FRANCE, 28/8/1996. pp.601-608.
DE. CONLAN, JWS. LONGHURST, S. LINDLEY, DW. RAPER (1994). SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN PRECIPITATION CHEMISTRY IN THE URBAN AREA OF GREATER MANCHESTER, UNITED-KINGDOM. In: AIR POLLUTION II, VOL 2: POLLUTION CONTROL AND MONITORING. BARCELONA, SPAIN, 27/9/1994. pp.213-220.
DE. CONLAN, SJ. LINDLEY, DW. RAPER, JWS. LONGHURST (1994). TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN THE CONURBATION OF GREATER MANCHESTER. In: AIR POLLUTION II, VOL 2: POLLUTION CONTROL AND MONITORING. BARCELONA, SPAIN, 27/9/1994. pp.221-228.
DW. RAPER, JWS. LONGHURST, DE. CONLAN (1994). THE IMPACT OF AIRPORT OPERATIONS ON URBAN AIR QUALITY. In: AIR POLLUTION II, VOL 2: POLLUTION CONTROL AND MONITORING. BARCELONA, SPAIN, 27/9/1994. pp.91-97.
. Petzold, . Ibrahim, . Mocnik, . Hitzenberger, . Christie, et al. (2011). Closure study on optical microphysical and chemical properties of combustion aerosols from a gas turbine combustor and from a diffusion flame. , ICCPA.
A. Crayford, M. Johnson, R. Marsh, Y. Sevcenco, D. Walters, et al. (2011). Studying, sampling and measuring of aircraft particulate Emission III. Final Report. , EASA.
R. Marsh, A. Crayford, A. Petzold, M. Johnson, P. Williams, et al. (2010). Studying, sampling and measurement of aircraft particulate emissions II (SAMPLE II). , EASA.
EPSRC GR/M60200. Sustainability indicators for airport intermodal transport hubs: a generic strategic design support; 1999 – 2002. £99,092
The UK sustainable cities and aviation network (SCAN-UK). 1999 – June 2002. £51, 730.
EPSRC GR/R32499/01. Airships as a means of Freight Transport £46,000.
EPSRC ROPA: GR/R91649/01 Air Quality in Airport Approaches: Impact of Emissions Entrained by Vortices in Aircraft Wakes. £44,291.
EPSRC EP/C5146021/1 (2005) Air Quality in Airport Approaches £112,000.
Funding for Chairs
Manchester Airport. Chair of Sustainable Aviation. November 1998 – October 2003. £350,000.
Manchester Airport Chair of Sustainable Aviation. November 2003 – October 2008. £350,000.
AERONET 1 (CT97-013) January 1999 – January 2001. £10,000.
AERONET 2 (GTC1-2000-28056) . January 2001 - December 2003. £15,000.
AERONET 3 (FP6 - 502882). January 2004 - December 2006. £80,000.
AERO2K (GRD1-2000-25042) Develop a 4 dimensional inventory of Aircraft LTO emissions £70,000.
Environmentally Compatible Air Transport System (ECATS) ANE4-CT-2005-012284 £700,000.
EASA (2009) Sample 2. Properties of Emissions from gas turbines. £10,000
EASA (2010) Sample 3 Properties of Emissions from gas turbines. £20,000
UK Government and Agencies
Highways Agency contract reference C2/8. Tree planting in terms of atmospheric pollution removal efficiency, 1997. £42,000.
Environment Agency. Measurement of the dry and wet deposition of acid precursors in the Afan Catchment to elucidate the contribution of local emission sources to acidification of the head waters. 1996. £4,500.
Highways Agency contract reference HA/34/43/31. Limited Facility Flyovers for outward traffic bias on roads. 1999. £14,000.
DEFRA. International aviation emissions allocations (CO2). 2003. £100,000. DfT Characteristics of Aircraft Plume an ground run and flight (2005) PPRO 4/008/007. £75,000.
Dft Airport Dispersion Model intercomparison and validation study (2005) PPRO4/008/006 £135,000.
DfT. Marginal Abatement curves. CO2 reduction intervention strategies for the UK domestic aviation sector (2008) £50,000.
EUROCONTROL (C/1.337/HQ/AK/01) Environmental capacity of the Air Transport System. £56,000. EUROCONTROL (CE/3415//FIN) Development of a Local Air Quality toolkit. £20,000.
IATA. Investigation of the environmental practices of international Airlines. Funding £20,000. 2000. EUROCONTROL (TRS – B03/02 5a) Aircraft Noise Annoyance. £13,000.
EUROCONTROL (TRS -052) Environmental Significance Evaluation Tool (for Sophos). £26,000.
Airbus (2010) Life cycle Analysis of bio fuels. Value to MMU £300,000
USA Department of Transport. Comparative study of EDMS and ADMS and the application of dispersion models to complex airport sites. 2001. £14,000.
USA Department of Transport. Comparative study of Gaussian (ADMS and EDMS) and Lagrangian models – Zurich Switzerland. £14,000.
National Academy Scinces, Transport Research Board. (2012) Assessment of Air Quality around Airports. £30,000
Manchester Airport.Investigating the air quality impacts of aircraft and support vehicles operating at the airport – development of a robust methodological approach for constructing emission inventories and predicting present and future impacts and monitor local air quality. Total funds awarded between 1990 – 2005 £660,000.
Birmingham Airport. Investigation of the effects of aircraft operations on local air quality and predict impacts associated with future growth plans. Monitoring of organic and inorganic air pollutants. 1994. £50,000.
Newcastle Airport. Investigation of the air quality impacts of future growth scenarios, 1997. £20,000.
Belfast Airport Investigation of the air quality impacts of building a new Terminal. 1999. £8,500.
Bristol Airport. Investigation of air quality implications associated with future development scenarios. December 1999. £40,000.
Birmingham Airport Runway extension environmental impact assessment. July 2001. £12,000.
East Midlands Airport. Runway extension environmental impact assessment. July 2001. £12,000.
British Airways. Noise mitigation measures. July 2001. £7,000.
European Airports Norwegian CAA An integrated assessment of odour issues at airports in the context of the proposed new Oslo Airport at Gardermoen. 1990. £20,000.
UK Local Government
Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Development, maintainence and provision of future enhancements to a region wide emissions inventory. April 1996 – April 2004. £230,000.
Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Modelling regional air quality for a base year of 1997 and prediction for the year 2005 using ADMS –Urban. 1998. £75,000.
Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Regional air quality modelling of forecast traffic scenarios and development plans and detailed street canyon dispersion simulations. 1999. £50,000.
Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Regional air quality modelling of forecast traffic scenarios and development plans. 2000. £35,000.
Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Regional air quality modelling of forecast traffic scenarios and development plans. 2001. £50,000.
Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. Regional air quality modelling of forecast traffic scenarios and development plans. 2002. £50,000.
Various Local Authorities (including Mersyside, Nottinghamshire and Cheshire County Council) Development of emission inventories and dispersion simulation. 1996. £105,000.
Regional Development Agency
North West Regional Development Agency. Development of an Aircraft Plume Analysis Facility (ALFA). 2010. £500,000
HEFCE Competitive funding (HEIF 3)
Opportunities for Meeting the Environmental Growth Opportunities of Aviation Growth. (OMEGA) £5,000,000
Non – Research /Consultancy Income DETR (DEFRA). The Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme (ACE) April 1996 – April 2000. £150,000
European Union. Organisation of an International Conference to debate sustainable mobility in Member States. 1996. £23,000.
DEFRA - The Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme 2002-2005. £108,000.